Herzl, Theodor

(1860-1904)
   The founder of modern political Zionism, Herzl was the driving force in the creation of the political ideology and the worldwide movement that led to the establishment of Israel. Born in Pest, Hungary, on 1 May 1860, he was an assimilated Jew who later moved from Hungary to Austria. He studied law but became involved in literature and wrote short stories and plays. He worked as the Paris correspondent of the Viennese daily newspaper Neue Freie Presse from 1891 to 1895. Growing anti-Semitism in France contributed to Herzl's interest in the Jewish problem. As a journalist, he observed the trial of Alfred Dreyfus and was affected by the false accusations leveled against the French Jewish army officer and by the episodes of anti-Semitism that accompanied the trial and the disgrace of Dreyfus.
   Herzl wrote Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), published in Vienna in 1896, in which he assessed the situation and problems of the Jews and proposed a practical plan for the establishment of a Jewish state for resolution of the Jewish Question. Herzl argued: "Let the sovereignty be granted us over a portion of the globe large enough to satisfy the rightful requirements of a nation; the rest we shall manage for ourselves." Subsequently, Herzl traveled widely to publicize and gain support for his ideas. He found backing among the masses of east European Jewry and opposition among the leadership and wealthier segments of the western Jewish communities.
   On 23 August 1897, in Basle, Switzerland, Herzl convened the first World Zionist Congress representing Jewish communities and organizations throughout the world. The congress established the World Zionist Organization (WZO) and founded an effective, modern, political, Jewish national movement with the goal, enunciated in the Basle Program, the original official program of the WZO: "Zionism seeks to establish a home for the Jewish people in Palestine secured under public law." Zionism rejected other solutions to the Jewish Question and was the response to centuries of discrimination, persecution, and oppression. It sought redemption through self-determination. Herzl died in Austria on 3 July 1904 and was buried in Vienna. In August 1949, his remains were reinterred on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem.

Historical Dictionary of Israel. .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HERZL, THEODOR — (Binyamin Ze ev; 1860–1904), founder of political Zionism and the World Zionist Organization. Herzl was born in Budapest, Hungary, to an affluent family and educated in the spirit of German Jewish enlightenment. In 1878 he entered the law faculty …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Herzl, Theodor — (1860–1904)    The founder of political Zionism, Theodor Herzl was born in Budapest, Hungary. Herzl grew up in the spirit of the German Jewish Enlightenment. In 1878, the family moved to Vienna and Herzl studied law, graduating in 1884. Rather… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Herzl, Theodor — born May 2, 1860, Budapest, Hungary died July 3, 1904, Edlach, Austria Hungarian Zionist leader. Growing up Jewish in Hungary, he believed that assimilation was the best strategy to deal with the anti Semitism he encountered. He became a Zionist… …   Universalium

  • Herzl, Theodor — (1869 1904)    Austrian writer and journalist, founder of political Zionism. He was born in Budapest. From 1891 to 1895 he was the Paris correspondent for the Vienna Neue Freie Presse. In his play Das neue Ghetto he criticized Jewish assimilation …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Herzl, Theodor — ► (1860 1904) Escritor judío húngaro. Fue fundador del sionismo. Expuso sus teorías en El estado judío. * * * (2 may. 1860, Budapest, Hungría–3 jul. 1904, Edlach, Austria). Dirigente sionista húngaro. Criado como judío en Hungría, pensaba que la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Herzl,Theodor — Her·zl (hĕrtʹsəl), Theodor. 1860 1904. Hungarian born Austrian founder of Zionism. As a correspondent during the Alfred Dreyfus affair, he determined that the solution to anti Semitism was the establishment of a Jewish national state. He founded… …   Universalium

  • Herzl — Herzl, Theodor …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Theodor Herzl — (* 2. Mai 1860 in Pest; † 3. Juli 1904 in Edlach, Gemeinde Reichenau an der Rax, Niederösterreich) war ein österreichisch ungarischer jüdischer Schriftsteller, Publizist und Journalist und der Begründer des modernen politischen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Theodor Herzl — ( he. בנימין זאב הרצל (Binyamin Ze ev Herzl)) (May 2, 1860 ndash;July 3, 1904) was an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism. Herzl was born in Pest (today the eastern half of Budapest, then a separate city) to a German… …   Wikipedia

  • Theodor Herzl — בִּנְיָמִין זֶאֶב הֵרצְל Theodor Herzl Nom de naissance Binyamin Ze’ev Herzl …   Wikipédia en Français

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